Manifestations > Séminaires


Séminaire 2017

Séminaires 2017





23 novembre 2017
- "Le processus de déshumanisation: cibles, formes, antécédents et conséquences (et tentatives pour lutter contre !)"

 Jessica Mange (Laboratoire de Psychologie Caen Normandie, LPCN, EA 7452) 


Depuis les années 2000, les travaux de psychologie sociale approchent le phénomène de dérogation à l'égard des exogroupes par une nouvelle facette des processus de perception sociale: la déshumanisation d'autrui. Plusieurs modèles complémentaires, l'infra-humanisation (Leyens et al., 2000), la déshumanisation animalistique vs. mécanistique (Haslam, 2006)ou la déshumanisation flagrante (Kteily et al., 2015), permettent d'approcher ce phénomène. Les cibles du processus sont variées; il peut par exemple s'agir de femmes (Rudman & Mesher, 2012), de personnes âgées (Boudjemadi et al., 2017) ou d'exogroupes ethniques (Kteily et al., 2015).

 

Ce phénomène, mis en évidence dans le jugement social dès l'âge de 6 ans (McLoughlin et al., 2017), a de multiples conséquences sociales. D'une part, la déshumanisation d'autrui génère un abaissement de comportements pro-sociaux (e.g. Cuddy et al., 2007; Nagar & Maoz, 2015) telles que l'aide aux victimes après un tremblement de terre (Andrighetto et al., 2014). D'autre part, de manière symétrique, la déshumanisation d'autrui va favoriser l'augmentation de comportements anti-sociaux tels que la sur-estimation de la culpabilité de mineurs afro-américains lors de procès (e.g. Goff, Jackson, Allison, et al., 2014).

 

A ce jour, quelques stratégies pour lutter contre la tendance à déshumaniser autrui ont été mises à l'épreuve telles que la présentation d'information contre-stéréotypiques (Prati, Crisp, & Rubini, 2015) ou des situations de multi-catégorisation de la cible (Alborello & Rubini, 2012). Le champ de la prévention primaire, secondaire ou tertiaire du phénomène reste à développer. Des données pré-testant l'application de ces modèles à la culture française seront présentées en illustration.


28 septembre 2017 - "Some Further Clarifications on Changes in Stroop Interference across Life Span"

 Maria Augustinova (CRFDP, Université de Rouen Normandie)  

 


"Since its conception, the Stroop task (Stroop, 1935) continuously provides a fertile ground for a study of human cognition. Yet, the processes underlying interference that is observed in this task are still subject to a considerable scientific debate. In this talk I will present several experimental studies that attempted to address these still open issues directly instead of inferring them from changes in overall (i.e., standard) Stroop interference. To this end, different age groups were administered the semantic Stroop paradigm that successfully captures the contribution of distinct components of Stroop interference (e.g., Augustinova & Ferrand, 2014; Augustinova et al., 2017).

 

The results of these studies show that a) Stroop interference is indeed a composite phenomenon involving both automatic and controlled processes and therefore b) these distinct types of processes (hence magnitudes of distinct components of Stroop interference) evolve differently across lifespan. The somewhat obvious conclusion of this talk is that these processes are more successfully integrated within multi-stage accounts of Stroop interference than within the historically favored single-stage response competition accounts that still dominate current psychological research and practice."

 

Augustinova, M., & Ferrand, L. (2014). Automaticity of Word Reading: Evidence from the Semantic Stroop Paradigm. Current Directions in Psychological Science, 23, 343-348.
 
Augustinova, M., Silvert, L., Spatola, N., & Ferrand, L. (2017). Further investigation of distinct components of Stroop interference and of their reduction by short response-stimulus intervals. Acta Psychologica (in press).

 
27 avril 2017 - L'étude neuropsychologique des troubles praxiques et du schéma corporel dans les pathologies neurodégénératives

 Josselin Baumard (CRFDP, Université de Rouen Normandie)


Apraxia in general and tool use disorders in particular may reduce autonomy in patients with neurodegenerative diseases. However, very few studies have been done in this field, and they rarely take specificities of dementia into account (e.g., evolution, focal or diffuse atrophy, different phenotypes). A reason for this is that there is no theoretical consensus on the nature of apraxia.

 

Noticeably, two theories of apraxia can be distinguished: Memory-based hypotheses and reasoning-based or dynamic hypotheses. According to the memory-based approach, apraxia is due to a loss of stored knowledge (e.g., semantic memory, gesture engrams). In contrast, the dynamic approach posits that gesture production is made possible by online cognitive mechanisms (e.g., technical reasoning, affordances, sensory integration). In this framework, apraxic disorders have been explained by various cognitive impairments, some of which are not praxis-specific (e.g., semantic memory, planning skills, body schema, working memory, etc.).

 

The aim of the present work was to assess the relative contribution of these different cognitive mechanisms to apraxia in patients with different neurodegenerative diseases (i.e., Alzheimer’s disease, semantic dementia, corticobasal degeneration, posterior cortical atrophy).

 

The following issues will be addressed during this presentation, each corresponding to a different study and methodology: 1) The relative roles of technical reasoning and semantic memory in tool use; 2) The relative roles of motor and planning skills in tool use; 3) The relative roles of semantic memory and personal habits in object categorization; 4) Different patterns of impairment of sensory integration and body knowledge.
 


23 mars 2017 - La préservation de la communication non-verbale dans la maladie d'Alzheimer

Virginie Beaucousin (CRFDP, Université de Rouen Normandie) et Désirée Lopis (Laboratoire Cognitions Humaine et Artificielle, Université de Paris X Nanterre - La Défense)

 


Alzheimer Dementia (AD) is linked to a neuronal degeneration that is to date still uncurable despite huge research progress. Moreover, the psychological support offered to patients and their family during the period between the diagnosis and the institutionalization is scarce compared to the financial issues raised by their life quality decline during this period. This decline is linked to a progressive social withdrawal that follows the installation of cognitive and behavioral impairments.

 

The goal of this project is (i) to evidence preserved mechanisms necessary to successful communication in patients with AD at the first stages of the disease and (ii) to start investigating how to rely on these preserved processes in order to improve the quality of the patient’s social exchanges while reducing their withdrawal and cognitive decline. Interpersonal interactions heavily rely on the decoding of non-verbal cues that constitutes a basic process for social adaptation. Among others, we will focus on three particular non-verbal cues: emotional prosody, eye contact and odors/fragrances.

 

Concerning emotional prosody and eye contact, the literature suggests that the processing of these cues could be preserved in patients with early AD and be used to improve the quality of both their social exchange, and their cognitive abilities during social interactions. Concerning odor perception, it is well known that olfactory performances during explicit tasks are impaired very early in AD. However, since odors are emotional cues that could implicitly influence the perception of others and emotional autobiographical memory - that is preserved in AD - we assume that they could be used to create an hedonic context so as to improve social interactions too.

 

As a first step, we have investigated the preservation of the implicit processing of emotional prosody, eye contact and odors perception in AD patients. Secondly, we have explored the impact of these social non-verbal cues on other cognitive functions such as (i) memory, (ii) attentional processing and (iii) self-consciousness.